Património Industrial

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    The intention to protect and study the industrial heritage is a very recent attitude. In fact, all the heritage dating from closest chronological periods and with a markedly functional and less prestigious nature has less acceptance, unless it constitutes an exceptional architectural example. How can we, then, at the beginning of the 21st century, look for material remains that have until recently played a role in urban modeling or in the economic structure of society?

    The defense movement of the industrial legacy had its genesis in the 50's England due to the destruction of many factories during the Second World War.

    In Portugal, the concerns about the industrial world arose around 1980. The term industrial archeology began to be disseminated through exhibitions or the first scientific studies. The objectives and operating concepts often touched those of the industrial heritage.

    The object of study of the industrial heritage is multiple, considering the various productive areas and the different construction solutions. So, when talking about the industrial heritage, we often refer to the traces left by the industry: textile, glass, ceramics, metallurgy or foundry, chemistry, paper, food, mining - mines -, in addition to public works, transports, commercial and port infrastructures, workers' houses, etc. Each industrial universe has its specificity. The production processes, the machinery used (machine tools and machine-operators) differ according to the respective area of work, with similarities in the different driving forces used over time.

    Industrial buildings are the closest testimonies to communities, imposing themselves through the use of specific languages, disseminated through different construction solutions, such as shed roofs or the use of various construction materials, such as iron, red brick and, later, the concrete.

    Industrial heritage is an inter and multidisciplinary area. What is desirable in the interpretation of an industrial object is the participation of several specialists (historians, architects, engineers, patrimonialists, archaeologists).

    In a very synthetic way, it can be said that the industrial heritage deals with technical-industrial traces, technical equipment, buildings, products, archival documents and the industrial organization itself.

    The classified buildings now disclosed are part of this vast heritage universe. They encompass constructions fostered by royal policies, or productive areas at the dawn of mechanization - manufactures -, or industrial sectors that somehow stood out in safeguarding the industrial heritage due to their architectural character. The associated social structures represent constructive and organizational typologies that reflect an industrial philosophy, which cannot be dissociated from an overall analysis of the industrialization process.

    The following public works or infrastructure are in some way related to the industrialization of the various productive sectors, or the use of materials resulting from the Industrial Revolution.

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